Fayetteville, which was fortified alternately by both the North and the South during the Civil War, became the second county seat of Fayette County. The only military action was when the Confederate troops shelled the Union entrenchments on May 19, 1863.
A historic marker identifies Fayetteville as the place where the military practice of firing over the heads of friendly troops to hit enemy positions was first used during the Civil War. The city was settled in 1818 by Abraham Vandal and at first was called Vandalia. Vandal platted the land in 1836, and it became the county seat in 1837. It wasn't officially incorporated until 1883.
The county is named for the honor of Marquis de Lafayette whose Revolutionary War exploits on behalf of the American Colonists has been well documented. The first courthouse was built in 1838, after the town fathers approved a tax levy of $1,500 for its construction "near the dead chestnut tree in Vandals rye field." Oak Hill, the county's largest municipality, and Fayetteville are the trading centers for the county located in south central West Virginia.This county, too, is on the Allegheny Plateau and is known for its coal, livestock, dairy products, fruit, tobacco, and timber.
Fayette County, located in the south central part of the state, was founded in 1831. Larger than average, the county contains more than 665 square miles of land.